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GMAT


Disclaimer: All “the practice questions” in this document are taken from Official Guide for GMAT 12th edition. Property of Graduate Admission Council and CoursesByKevin International is neither affiliated with or endorsed by Graduate Admission Council.

Structure of the Test:

Verbal Reasoning:

  • This section is composed of three subsections: Critical Reasoning, Reading Comprehension, and Sentence Correction.

Critical Reasoning:

  • This section is one of the most daunting sections of the GMAT. It requires you to think critically and to evaluate an argument based on the question asked. The success to getting a high percentile score at this section requires multi-tasking, ability to shift and to think differently, as well as a deep understanding of different question types and their respective strategies. Mastering strategies at Critical Reasoning not only saves an examinee a lot of time, but also equips him with the know-how to take the test with utmost confidence.

  1. Strengthen Questions: These questions require you to support the argument and to use any additional pieces of information, taken out of the answer choices, to strengthen a weakness in the argument.

Common Language Themes:

Which of the following, if true, best strengthens/supports/buttresses/bolsters/… the argument/the conclusion/the claims made by the author?

Example Question:

Tiger beetles are such fast runners that they can capture virtually any nonflying insect. However, when running toward an insect, a tiger beetle will intermittently stop and then, a moment later, resume its attack. Perhaps the beetles cannot maintain their pace and must pause for a moment’s rest; but an alternative hypothesis is that while running, tiger beetles are unable to adequately process the resulting rapidly changing visual information and so quickly go blind and stop.

Which of the following, if discovered in experiments using artificially moved prey insects, would support one of the two hypotheses and undermine the other?

(A) When a prey insect is moved directly toward a beetle that has been chasing it, the beetle immediately stops and runs away without its usual intermittent stopping.

(B) In pursuing a swerving insect, a beetle alters its course while running and its pauses become more frequent as the chase progresses.

(C) In pursuing a moving insect, a beetle usually responds immediately to changes in the insect’s direction, and it pauses equally frequently whether the chase is up or down an incline.

(D) If, when a beetle pauses, it has not gained on the insect it is pursuing, the beetle generally ends its pursuit.

(E) The faster a beetle pursues an insect fleeing directly away from it, the more frequently the beetle stops.

B. Weaken Questions: Unlike strengthen questions, weaken questions ask you to challenge the claims highlighted in the argument. The claims are usually hinted by the assumption of the author. The assumption, by the way, is a piece of information that is NOT directly stated by it is assumed based on the information given in the argument.

Common Language Themes:

  1. Which of the following, if true, most challenges/weakens/attacks/…..the argument/the conclusion/the claims made by the author?

  2. The argument above would be most weakened if it were true that…

Example Question:

Vasquez-Morrell Assurance specializes in insuring manufacturers. Whenever a policyholder makes a claim, a claims adjuster determines the amount that Vasquez-Morrell is obligated to pay. Vasquez-Morrell is cutting its staff of claims adjusters by 15 percent. To ensure that the company’s ability to handle claims promptly is affected as little as possible by the staff cuts, consultants recommend that Vasquez-Morrell lay off those adjusters who now take longest, on average, to complete work on claims assigned to them. Which of the following, if true, most seriously calls into question the consultants’ criterion for selecting the staff to be laid off?

(A) If the time that Vasquez-Morrell takes to settle claims increases significantly, it could lose business to other insurers.

(B) Supervisors at Vasquez-Morrell tend to assign the most complex claims to the most capable adjusters.

(C) At Vasquez-Morrell, no insurance payments are made until a claims adjuster has reached a final determination on the claim.

(D) There are no positions at Vasquez-Morrell to which staff currently employed as claims adjusters could be reassigned.

(E) The premiums that Vasquez-Morrell currently charges are no higher than those

C. Assumption Questions: Assumptions are invisible chains in the argument. Assumptions connect premises to the main conclusion of the argument. Assumption are NEVER directly states. So, you must avoid paraphrases of different parts of the argument. Also, the answer to an assumption questions shall NOT bring in additional information, information not-introduced by the premises of the argument. It’s vital to master assumptions as they not only aid you with finding the right answer but are very important in strengthen and weaken questions.

Question Themes:

Which of the following is the best assumption/presupposition/…of the author? It is assumed that….?

Example Question:

Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortland will soon decrease.

(B) Importing either grain or meat will not result in a significantly higher percentage of Gortlanders’ incomes being spent on food than is currently the case.

(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is increasing at roughly the same rate across all income levels.

(D) The per capita income of meat producers in Gortland is rising faster than the per capita income of grain producers.

(E) People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain.

D. Conclusion Questions: These questions require you to:

  1. Complete the passage. In this case, the ending part of the passage is left unfinished and the test taker is asked to complete it.

  2. Find the conclusion of the author in which the test-taker is asked find where the conclusion of the author is.

Language Theme:

The statements above are leading towards which of the following conclusions? Which of the following best completes the passage above?

Example Question:

Some batches of polio vaccine used around 1960 were contaminated with SV40, a virus that in monkeys causes various cancers. Some esearchers now claim that this contamination caused some cases of a certain cancer in humans, mesothelioma. This claim is not undercut by the fact that a very careful survey made in the 1960s of people who had received the contaminated vaccine found no elevated incidence of any cancer, since ____________.

(A) most cases of mesothelioma are caused by exposure to asbestos

(B) in some countries, there was no contamination of the vaccine

(C) SV40 is widely used in laboratories to produce cancers in animals

(D) mesotheliomas take several decades to develop

(E) mesothelioma was somewhat less common in 1960 than it is now

E. Inference Questions: Inferences are logically conclusions of a part of the passage. These questions require you to beyond what’s presented in the passage while staying within its scope.

Language Themes:

What can be inferred from the information presented in above? The author is most likely implying that….

Example Question:

F. Explain the paradox questions: These questions are not among frequent Critical Reasoning questions. There may be 1 or 2 “explain the paradox” questions overall. These question ask you to resolve a discrepancy in the argument. Common indicators in these questions are contrast transition such as “however, yet, but,…” You are asked to find a way for the seemingly conflicting premises to go hand-in-hand.

Language Themes:

Which of the following, if true, best explains the discrepancy/paradox stated above? Which of the following, if true, best accounts for the apparent discrepancy/paradox stated above? The paradox/oxymoron/discrepancy above would be fixed if it were true that…..

Example Question:

G. Evaluate The Argument: These questions’ prime purpose is to ask you to evaluate how founded the argument is. Be careful not to confuse the questions with “strengthen questions.” You are usually given a seemingly fragile argument, perhaps with a chain or more missing, and then asked to find an additional piece of information that would make the argument rounded.

Language Themes:

Which one the following would be most beneficial in evaluating the argument above? The answer to which of these questions would be most useful in evaluating the argument’s conclusion/the author’s recommendation?

Example Question:

Metal rings recently excavated from seventh-century settlements in the western part of Mexico were made using the same metallurgical techniques as those used by Ecuadorian artisans before and during that period. These techniques are sufficiently complex to make their independent development in both areas unlikely. Since the people of these two areas were in cultural contact, archaeologists hypothesize that the metallurgical techniques used to make the rings found in Mexico were learned by Mexican artisans from Ecuadorian counterparts. Which of the following would it be most useful to establish in order to evaluate the archaeologists’ hypothesis?

(A) Whether metal objects were traded from Ecuador to western Mexico during the seventh century

(B) Whether travel between western Mexico and Ecuador in the seventh century would have been primarily by land or by sea

(C) Whether artisans from western Mexico could have learned complex metallurgical techniques from their Ecuadorian counterparts without

actually leaving western Mexico

(D) Whether metal tools were used in the seventhcentury settlements in western Mexico

(E) Whether any of the techniques used in the manufacture of the metal rings found in western Mexico are still practiced among artisans in Ecuador today

H. Must-Be-True Questions: Here you are asked to rely primarily on the information provided in the argument to determine which one the choices is true. The answer is typically a paraphrase of a part of the passage. Must-Be-True questions are NOT generally among the harder Critical Reasoning questions in GMAT.

Language Theme:

  1. If the statements above were true, which of the following should also be true?

  2. Based on the information above, which of the following must be true?

Example Question:

The percentage of households with an annual income of more than $40,000 is higher in Merton County than in any other county. However, the percentage of households with an annual income of $60,000 or more is higher in Sommer County. If the statements above are true, which of the following must also be true?

(A) The percentage of households with an annual income of $80,000 is higher in Sommer County than in Merton County.

(B) Merton County has the second highest percentage of households with an annual income of $60,000 or more.

(C) Some households in Merton County have an annual income between $40,000 and $60,000.

(D) The number of households with an annual income of more than $40,000 is greater in Merton County than in Sommer County.

(E) Average annual household income is higher in Sommer County than in Merton County.

  1. Parallel Reasoning: The questions are among some of the most difficult and yet least common question types in GMAT. Examinees are recommended to take them seriously if they appear among the first ten questions as they will help you jump up into a higher percentile. However, if “Parallel Reasoning” questions show up later, spending much time on them is NOT advisable. Parallel Reasoning questions ask you to find arguments, among the answer choices, that follow the same line of reasoning introduced by the argument. These questions require meticulous understanding of the argument’s logical reasonings as well as that of each single choice.

Language Themes:

Which of the following is most analogous to the reasoning pattern used in the argument? The reasoning pattern in the argument above most resembles/parallels which of the following?

Example Question

————————————

Sentence Correction:

Sentence Correction is among the toughest sections of GMAT both for native speakers of English and for nonnative speakers. In this section of GMAT, you are provided with a sentence that is partially or fully underlined. The underlined section is presumed to be wrong, although it may even be correct. If it is correct, answer choice A is the answer as it merely repeats the underlined section. In a case of no, the answer is B, C, D, or E. Each of the aforementioned four choices makes some changes to the underlined section.

Courses By Kevin London’s Golden Strategies to answer GMAT Sentence Correction questions:

Pre-rule Number 1: Trust the part that is NOT underlined. This way, you can use elimination process by crossing out choices that do NOT come in harmony with the section that is NOT underlined.

Pre-rule Number 2: Courses By Kevin London’s Rule of Concision. If you are doubting between two choices, choose the one that is less wordy. The GMAT test-makers do not like wordy choices. In other words, if they can write something in 7 words, they will not write it in 12 words.

Pre-rule Number 3: Courses By Kevin London’s Rule of Similarity: Again, if you are doubting between two choices, pick the one that does NOT make dramatic changes to the initial sentence. The initial sentence is always the preferred structure.

Courses By Kevin’s General Strategy in answering GMAT Sentence Correction questions AKA “Group Cross-out:” Perhaps the single best strategy in answer these questions is to group the choices based on the mistake(s) they have in common and to cross our collectively while having pre-rule number 1 in mind and before applying pre-rules 2 and 3.

Example Question

Although fruit can no longer grow once it is picked, it continues for some time torespire, taking in oxygen and giving off carbon dioxide, similar to the way human beings breathe.

(A) similar to the way human beings breathe

(B) similarly to human beings who are breathing

(C) just like the breathing of human beings

(D) as human beings when breathing

(E) just as human beings do when they breathe

Although one link in the chain was demonstrated to be weak, but not sufficiently so to require the recall of the automobile.

(A) demonstrated to be weak, but not sufficiently so to requir

(B) demonstrated as weak, but it was not sufficiently so that it required

(C) demonstrably weak, but not sufficiently so to require

(D) demonstrably weak, it was not so weak as to require

(E) demonstrably weak, it was not weak enough that it required

………………………………………………………………………..

GMAT Quantitative Reasoning:

This section of the GMAT tests your skills in math. GMAT quant can be a daunting task even for those familiar with math. It requires quick thinking and problem solving skills. In addition, certain sections of the GMAT quantitative reasoning test your ability to understand and solve so-called “word problems.” Word problems deal with real life cases and are common in statistics (combinations and probabilities.) They also frequently appear in physics (speed and rate problems). We, at Courses By Kevin London have created a focused GMAT quantitative reasoning program with a special focus on “word problems.” The GMAT Quantitative Reasoning Section is composed of two sections:

GMAT Problem Solving

GMAT Data Sufficiency

GMAT Problem Solving: Here, you are dealing with a question in math and five choices to pick. This section is pretty straightforward if you are familiar with math concepts and formulas as well as with strategies. Feel free to contact us to get a book for free with review on all math concepts and formulas covered in this section.

Example Questions:

Among a group of 2,500 people, 35 percent invest in municipal bonds, 18 percent invest in oil stocks, and 7 percent invest in both municipal bonds and oil stocks. If 1 person is to be randomly selected from the 2,500 people, what is the probability that the person selected will be one who invests in municipal bonds but NOT in oil stocks?

  1. 9/50

  2. 7/25

  3. 7/20

  4. 21/50

  5. 27/50

A closed cylindrical tank contains 36π cubic feet of water and is filled to half its capacity. When the tank is placed upright on its circular base on level ground, the height of the water in the tank is 4 feet. When the tank is placed on its side on level ground, what is the height, in feet, of the surface of the water above the ground?

(A) 2

(B) 3

(C) 4

(D) 6

(E) 9

If x5y4z2 <0, which of the following must be true?

I xy <0

II yz <0

III xz <0

(A) I

(B) II

(C) III

(D) I and II

(E) None

4.

BCD is a line segment and Angle BAC = ¼ Angle ACB ; Angle ACD = ?

(A) 140

(B) 100

(C) 120

(D) 60

(E) it cannot be determined from the information given

………………………..

GMAT Data Sufficiency:

This section of the GMAT requires you to determine if, based on the information presented to you by the question, you have enough data to answer the question. GMAT data sufficiency questions look as below:

Question:

Statement 1:

Statement 2:

Choices:

  1. Statement 1 alone is sufficient to answer the question

  2. Statement 2 alone is sufficient to answer the question

  3. Statements 1 and 2 alone are NOT sufficient to answer the question but TOGETHER are sufficient to answer the question

  4. Each statement alone is sufficient to answer the question

  5. Statements 1 and 2 together are NOT sufficient to answer the question.

NOTE: You do NOT need to exactly answer the question. All you need to do is to determine if you have enough data to answer it. Sometimes finding the exact answer may take a lot of time, something you cannot afford at GMAT.

Example Questions:

If the length of Wanda’s telephone call was rounded up to the nearest whole minute by her telephone company, then Wanda was charged for how many minutes for her telephone call?

(1) The total charge for Wanda’s telephone call was $6.50.

(2) Wanda was charged $0.50 more for the first minute of the telephone call than for each minute after the first.

(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.

(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.

(C) BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are not sufficient.

If X and Y are points in a plane and X lies inside the circle C with center O and radius 2, does Y lie inside circle C ?

(1) The length of line segment XY is 3.

(2) The length of line segment OY is 1.5.

(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.

(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.

(C) BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are not sufficient.

If Paula drove the distance from her home to her college at an average speed that was greater than 70 kilometers per hour, did it take her less than 3 hours to drive this distance?

(1) The distance that Paula drove from her home to her college was greater than 200 kilometers.

(2) The distance that Paula drove from her home to her college was less than 205 kilometers.

(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.

(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.

(C) BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are not sufficient.


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